The doorway is an indispensable transitional space for the interior and exterior of the building. In elderly care facilities, properly designed door hopper is of great significance for preventing cold and wind, ensuring the stability of the physical environment of the hall space, and facilitating the elderly to enter and exit. Take this opportunity to introduce the design requirements of door bucket space in foreign standards.
The building code states that the minimum depth of the door bucket is related to the size of the door, the opening form of the door door, the projected size of the door bucket after the door door is opened, and the size of the space occupied by the wheelchair and accompanying persons. In the case of using a flat door, the size of the door bucket should meet the requirements of the following figure. In the figure, 1570mm is the size occupied by the wheelchair and the personnel carrying the wheelchair. When the two doors are opened into the door bucket, the minimum depth of the door bucket is the width of the door of the two doors +1570mm. When only one door opens inward, the depth of the door bucket is the width of the door +1570mm ". When the two doors of the door bucket are located on the adjacent wall, the minimum depth of the door bucket is shown in the figure below.
The national standard "Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities" states that the distance between two doors in series should be at least 48 inches (about 1220mm), plus the size of the space occupied by the door. In addition, the distance between the two doors should also ensure the wheelchair turning space, that is, a 60-inch diameter (about 1525mm) circle, as shown in the figure below.
Compared with the standard, it can be found that the size of the door bucket has taken into account the needs of wheelchair access or rotation. On this basis, the British standard also takes into account the size needed to promote wheelchair personnel, so the requirements for the depth of the door are higher than the American standard, about 350mm more (that is, 1570-1220=350).
The building code has more detailed requirements for the floor material of the door bucket, including: The floor material inside the door bucket should help remove rainwater from the shoes and the wheelchair, but should not impede the movement of the wheelchair. Change of floor material inside the door hopper should not pose a potential tripping hazard. When using embedded floor MATS, the surface of the floor mat should be level with the adjacent floor surface.
The building code states that the glass in the door hopper should not produce distracting reflections and should minimize interfering reflections from the glass. For lighting, the building code emphasizes that one of the important roles of the door bucket is to provide transitional lighting.
"Lighting and Visual Environment for the Elderly and Low Vision People" explains the importance of transitional lighting: indoor and outdoor transition Spaces should avoid excessive differences in indoor and outdoor light levels. After entering a relatively dark (or bright) space, older people may need to stop so that their eyes can adjust to the changing light levels. Therefore, some measures should be taken in the transition space to make the transition of indoor and outdoor light levels as smooth as possible. When visiting foreign elderly care facilities, we noticed that many facilities are equipped with lighting fixtures in the door, which has a good effect on regulating light changes and making the smooth transition between indoor and outdoor light and dark.
Building codes state that potential hazards posed by obstructions in door compartments should be reduced. Any column, path or similar double-height component, when its projection range occupies the space within the door bucket more than 100mm, to be protected by a visually contrasting guardrail.
"Lighting and visual Environment for the Elderly and low vision people" emphasizes that the large glass Windows and glass doors at the entrance and exit (door bucket) should be easy to see marks, such as horizontal bars or text installed at two heights (upper 1370-1570mm, lower 990mm), the size of the text should not be less than 15cm, and should be visible from both sides. To reduce the possibility of people accidentally bumping into each other.
In addition to the anti-collision strip, some elderly care facilities directly select the door into the form of a horizontal frame, which can also play a better anti-collision warning role.
Through the analysis of the standard, it can be found that in addition to paying attention to the space size of the door, foreign standards will also specify the ground material, door material, and lighting requirements of the door. In view of this, the author also adds corresponding requirements to some standards when writing them.
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